Graphene and the Covid-19 Vaccines
Another Guest Post from my friend Romeo F. Quijano, M.D. Professor (Ret.), College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila. Paper released for distribution / publication October 2023.
I have the greatest respect for Doc Romy’s professional expertise and personal integrity! Thus, even acknowledging the current controversies surrounding graphene oxide, I must take his concerns extremely seriously. Things that we considered conspiracy or science fiction mere years ago are already reality. Therefore, I am sharing my friend’s latest, thoroughly researched, article which covers his concerns over graphene oxide.
Graphene and the Covid-19 Vaccines
One of the most controversial issues surrounding the Covid-19 vaccines is the alleged presence of graphene, mainly in the form of graphene oxide. After the roll-out of the vaccines, a group in Spain, La Quinta Columna, headed by Dr. Ricardo Delgado, claimed that graphene oxide was found in some vials of the covid vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna, Astra-Zeneca and Janssen). Their claim was based mainly on the scientific study done by Dr. Pablo Campra Madrid, Associate Professor in Chemistry at the University of Almeria, Spain.1 In this study, Dr. Campra concludes:
“A random sampling of COVID19 vaccine vials has been performed using a coupled micro-RAMAN technique to characterize graphene-like microscopic objects using spectroscopic fingerprints characteristic of the molecular structure. The micro-RAMAN technique allows to reinforce the level of confidence in the identification of the material by coupling imaging and spectral analysis as observational evidence to be considered together. Objects have been detected whose RAMAN signals by similarity with the standard UNEQUIVOCABLY correspond to GRAPHENE OXIDE.”
More studies found graphene in covid vaccines. Shortly after Dr. Campra’s study, an analysis of vaccine vials (Pfizer and Moderna) was also carried out in Chile.2 According to this study (translated from Spanish), the images of the vaccine samples obtained by Confocal Laser Microscopy were analyzed directly, finding microstructures that are characteristic of the presence of organic matter. Nanosheets, usually called graphene microsheets or graphene nanosheets were found. When magnified, amorphous structures forming meshes were observed, a particular feature that graphene has. STEM (Short Time-series Expression Miner software) visualization shows amorphous agglomerates of nanostructures. An elemental distribution mapping performed on SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy)-Cu mounted samples found that the amorphous structures correspond to oxygen and carbon clusters characteristic of graphene.
Similarly in Argentina, Dr. Martín Monteverde and his colleagues carried out analyses of vials from Cansino, Pfizer, Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and Sputnik using optical microscopy up to 400X magnification and found the same kinds of nano and micro-electronic graphene structures as found earlier by other researchers in Spain and Chile.34 They also found rectangular, bubble-like, and long worm shapes as possible field-effect transistors (FETs), microbubbles, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SCWNT), as well as self-assembling properties in these nanoelectronics and microelectronics comprising tiny routers, circuits, and dots, including the seeming formation of fractalled plasmonic antennas.
In New Zealand, a team of scientists conducted microscopic observations into the vials of Comirnaty vaccine liquid and the results showed undisclosed ingredients within the vaccine similar to those found by Campra and Monteverde. Dr. Matt Shelton, head of New Zealand Doctors Speaking Out with Science, did his own experiments and confirmed that the findings were indeed true and replicable.
There was close similarity between the two photographs of chip-like nanoparticles found in New Zealand and the one discovered in a vial in Germany.5 Dr. Robert Young from the USA analyzed 4 covid vaccines (Pfizer-BioNtech, Moderna, Astrazeneca and Janssen) to verify their morphologies and contents using different instrumentation and protocols of preparation according to new nanoparticulate technological approaches.6 All the controls were put in place and reference measurements adopted in order to obtain validated results. Images of the aqueous fractions of the vaccines were subsequently obtained to visually assess the possible presence of carbon particulates or graphene. The observations under optical microscopy revealed an abundance of transparent 2D laminar objects that show great similarity with images from the literature7 and with images obtained from rGO or Graphene Hydroxide standard (SIGMA). Images of big transparent sheets of variable size and shapes were obtained, showing corrugated and flat, irregular objects.
Smaller sheets of polygonal shapes, also similar to flakes described in literature were revealed using Phase Contrast and Dark-Field microscopy. All these laminar objects were widespread in the aqueous fraction of the blood or vaccine samples and no component described by the registered patent(s) can be associated with these sheets.
Scientists in the United Kingdom recently conducted a forensic examination into the contents of covid vaccines. The objective of the study (Qualitative Evaluation of Inclusions in Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Pfizer Covid-19 vaccines) was to examine the vaccine vials and document any undeclared ingredients in the composition of the vaccines, with special focus on graphene and related products as well as any biological forms. The study was to verify the findings of graphene related compounds as reported by Campra and report any other biological inclusions that may be interpreted as toxic to human body. The vials went through evaluation of contents at four different laboratory sites.
Prepped slides of the samples were examined under a reflection and transmission light microscope for organic content and petrological microscope for mineral contents. Subsamples from original vials were obtained for Raman spectroscopy. The investigators discovered that the vaccines were loaded with graphene oxide. None of the covid injection manufacturers list graphene or carbon-related nanostructures in the form of carbon or graphene composites in their ingredients lists. They also fail to mention the presence of graphene in association with polyethylene glycol, graphene oxide, iron oxide compounds and calcite.
And yet all of these ingredients and more were identified in the vials:
Graphene nano ribbons coated with polyethylene glycol
Graphene composite Form 1
Graphene composite Form 2
Microcrystalline calcite with carbonaceous inclusions
Graphene nano form with and without fluorescence
Graphene nano objects
Graphene nano scrolls
In conclusion, the investigators stated that the four samples of vaccines (Moderna 1, Modern 2, AstraZeneca, Pfizer) all contained significant amounts of carbon composites, graphene compounds and iron oxide. These ingredients were undeclared by the manufacturers and are absent from the list of ingredients for the vaccines.8
Contamination or covert inclusion?
The aforementioned studies provide compelling evidence that leaves little doubt on the presence of graphene nanomaterials (GFNs) in covid-19 vaccines.
The presence of graphene oxide in the vaccine cannot be explained by contamination (a quality control problem identified by a number of studies in the process of manufacturing the vaccines) because graphene oxide, unlike contaminants, is not involved in the normal process of manufacturing the vaccine. DNA fragments, SV40 promoter gene, heavy metal residues, endotoxin and other possible contaminants are usual elements from adjuvants, cell culturing, purification and other steps in the manufacturing process which need to be filtered away from the final vaccine product that contains the vaccine ingredients (mRNA, LNPs, preservatives, etc.) as declared by the manufacturer.
The presence of graphene oxide in the vaccine can only be explained by intentional addition into the vaccine, which was however publicly undisclosed. Corroborating evidence that graphene oxide was intentionally put into the vaccine is the fact that the patent description on graphene oxide, owned by Fosun pharmaceuticals which has a commercial partnership with Pfizer related to Covid vaccine, clearly indicates that the graphene oxide/GFN was specifically for use in the production of coronavirus vaccine.9
GFNs are toxic
This is of utmost concern since GFNs are known to be toxic. Because of their extremely small size, GFNs like graphene oxide (GO) can easily penetrate practically all the protective barriers of the body and subsequently be distributed in tissues and cells thereby cause physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis and various other adverse effects. Their metabolism and excretion take relatively long processes. The recent studies of GFNs had been limited to short-term toxicological assessments and the long-term accumulation and toxicity on different tissues remain largely uninvestigated. The toxicity and biocompatibility of GFNs has been observed and assessed mainly through theoretical, laboratory and animal model studies. To date, there are plenty of scientific data elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity and demonstrating the adverse effects of GFNs in different organs or systems.
In a study on the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene on red blood cells (RBC) and skin fibroblasts10, the effects of graphene oxide (GO) exfoliation, size, oxygen content, and particulate state on human red blood cells (RBCs), a likely site of interaction for biomedical applications that require intravenous injection, were investigated. RBC toxicity was assessed by tracking the release of hemoglobin upon cell lysis under various nanomaterial exposure conditions. A universal method for testing in vitro nanoparticle hemolysis was employed to investigate the hemolytic activity of GO and graphene sheets (GS). The results showed that the membrane of RBCs was compromised in a dose dependent manner, leading to observable free hemoglobin in the supernatant. This result indicates that the disruption of the RBC membrane is likely attributed to the strong electrostatic interactions between negatively charged oxygen groups on the GO/GS surface and positively charged phosphatidylcholine lipids which are present on the RBC outer membrane.
In another study entitled Interaction of Graphene Oxide with Human Serum Albumin and its Mechanism11, the investigators wanted to find out whether the GO-protein interaction induces structural or functional damage of plasma proteins and determine the mechanism of GO-protein interaction. This is of great importance to the normal function of the blood. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was used as a material to investigate the interaction between GO and human blood proteins in terms of binding affinity, action mechanism, conformational change and function loss. In addition, they also investigated the effect of surface properties of GO on HSA. The study demonstrated that GO nanosheets readily interact with HSA and pristine GO may induce conformational changes and may cause malfunction in HSA’s binding capacity to toxins, leading to potential toxicity. The authors conclude that GO can immobilize protein and inhibit the protein’s function.
A study in Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, Ru Feng et al.12 investigated the effects of the graphene oxide (GO) on the structure and function of the blood components, especially on morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs), Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen conformation, complement activation, and blood coagulation function. Scanning electron microscopy observation and hemolysis test results showed that the GO can affect RBC morphology and membrane integrity in a concentration-dependent way. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra showed that GO could alter the secondary structures and conformation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen. In addition, the presence of GO could also trigger complement activation by detecting their key biomarker molecules in plasma. In the blood clotting process, the GO showed significant adverse effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time but not on prothrombin time of the platelet-poor plasma. Meanwhile, the GO also caused abnormal thromboelastography parameters of the whole blood coagulation.
In another study entitled Crucial Role of Lateral Size for Graphene Oxide in Activating Macrophages and Stimulating Pro-inflammatory Responses in Cells and Animals, Juan Ma et al.,201513 found that, in comparison to its smaller counterpart, larger GO showed a stronger adsorption onto the plasma membrane with less phagocytosis, which elicited more robust interaction with toll-like receptors and more potent activation of NF-κB pathways. By contrast, smaller GO sheets were more likely taken up by cells. As a result, larger GO promoted greater M1 (Type1 Macrophage) polarization, associated with enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of immune cells. The in vitro results correlated well with local and systemic inflammatory responses after GO administration into the abdominal cavity, lung, or bloodstream through the tail vein. Together, the study delineated the size-dependent M1 induction of macrophages and pro-inflammatory responses of GO in vitro and in vivo.
The data also unearthed the detailed mechanism underlying these effects: a size-dependent interaction between GO and the plasma membrane. Other studies show that the smallest size may cause the most severe toxicity. For example, reduced GO with a diameter of 11 ± 4 nm could enter into the nucleus of the human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) and cause chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation at very low concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL in 1 h14.
Very recently, Cebadero-Dominguez et al.,15 investigated the cytotoxicity response of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in THP-1 monocytes (human leukemia monocytic cell line) and Jurkat cells (immortal human T lymphocytes). The results of the study showed that rGO decreased the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages and upregulated the expression of genes related with inflammatory response which was found to be more intense in Jurkat cells compared to the THP-1 cells. No changes were found in the expression of apoptosis/necrosis related genes. The authors conclude that reduced graphene oxide has adverse impact on the immune system and should be further investigated.
In a detailed and comprehensive review by Lingling Ou et al. in 2016, numerous studies showed various adverse effects of GO and GFNs16. Just a few examples are presented here:
Animal studies showed that GO and reduced GO damage embryos.
A study on mice found that all pregnant females injected with rGO had abortions, regardless of dose. Most of the mice given a high dose died and their offspring suffered delayed development.
Another study showed that graphene oxide’s interaction with cells causes extensive oxidative stress which can trigger the generation of cancer cells, cause cells to mutate and accelerate ageing.
In another study, GO-induced oxidative stress has also been implicated in acute lung damage, cell death and DNA damage.
Graphene oxide can both reduce the number of mitochondria in particular cells and impair mitochondrial activity in such a way that it generates oxidative stress and causes cell death.
Graphene nanomaterials in general alter the viability, shape, size and structure of cells and decreases cell adhesion thereby disrupting important processes and leading to disease.
GO also causes apoptosis – a form of programmed cell death – and enters into the lysosomes, mitochondria, nucleus and endoplasm of cells.
GO derivatives dramatically decrease the expression of genes that are responsible for the structure and function of the cell membrane.
The foregoing studies cited leave no doubt that graphene oxide is a highly hazardous substance, and it is most likely present in covid-19 vaccines. This assertion is further supported by the aforecited fact that there is a patent for Nano-coronavirus recombinant vaccine taking graphene oxide as carrier filed by the Shanghai National Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology Co. Ltd. in September 27, 2020 and was assigned to the Fosun Pharmaceutical Company which in turn has a commercial agreement with Pfizer-BioNTech Pharmaceutical Company. Both companies are manufacturers of covid-19 vaccines.
Tapping the magnetic and similar properties of GFNs?
Furthermore, several studies have shown evidence of graphene oxide magnetism17 1819, giving credence to the numerous anecdotal reports and video recordings of the magnetism at the injection site of covid-19 vaccines. Graphene and graphene nanomaterials, especially the Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs), have special characteristics and shows numerous medical applications in biofunctionalization.
They can also act as biosensors that can be programmed to detect, store and transmit biosignals through a wireless network (e.g. 5G) and become a component of the IoT (Internet of Things) or more specifically, IoNT (Internet of Nanothings). This can explain the findings by Prof. Campra, during the observance with electron microscopy of the blood of vaccinated people, of what appeared to be Quantum Cell Automata (QCA) and Quantum Dots. This can also explain why devices with Bluetooth, such as smartphones, are able to detect MAC (Media Access Control) addresses originating from people who have received the Covid vaccine. Graphene-based biodevices, such as DNA carriers, microRNA carriers and a graphene–DNA biosensor have been shown to possess remarkable sensitivity, efficiency and stability in biological media. Since graphene is inherently tunable, a software defined material can be created that allows modification of the electrostatic bias applied to different areas of the graphene sheet. Graphene can, in essence, be controlled and programmed like software202122232425
A graphene synapse that is energy-efficient, scalable and suitable for large-scale integrations is also now being developed that mimics the analog way the human brain completes its tasks. Graphene's conductive properties allow researchers to finely tune its electrical conductance, which is the strength of the synaptic connection. In a related development, a switchable graphene-based biosensing system of bioelectronics is developing new platforms for controlling and regulating the physiological mechanism in response to real life stimuli. It explores the natural biochemical interaction and mimics the biochemical reactions while controlling the environment under the influence of external stimuli such as physical, chemical, electrical and magnetic (including electromagnetic frequency radiation, such as 5G) stimuli. With neuromorphic computing and artificial intelligence, computers can now already replicate and control the brain in certain ways.262728
The implications to the integrity of the individual, freedom, public health and the future of humanity of all these relatively recent developments are overwhelming and potentially catastrophic. People need to be aroused, organized and mobilized to ensure open, democratic and socially-just control of these developments.
Microstructures in Covid Vaccines. Pablo Campra Madrid, 2021. https://www.dropbox.com/s/tnnq4ftw818chmx/FINAL_VERSI
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Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles_general review-origins and mechanisms. Lingling Ou et al., 2016.
Visible evidence to magnetism of graphene oxide. Ling Sun, 2017. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.03570.pdf
Edge ferromagnetism of graphene oxide. Strzelczyk R et al. 2022. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885321009227
Identifying the magnetic properties of graphene oxide. Tao Tang et al. 2014. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261222549_Identifying_the_magnetic_properties_of_graphene_oxide
China patent-Nanocovid vaccine-graphene oxide carrier. Google patents, retrieved Oct. 4, 2023. https://patents.google.com/patent/CN112220919A/en
Fabrication-analysis of graphene-based molecular-receiver-Internet of Nano Things-IoNT. Murat Kuscu et al. 2021. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34599208/
Applications of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Versatile Sensors. Reshmi Bose et al. 2022. https://biointerfaceresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/BRIAC135.457.pdf
Use of graphene-based materials as carriers of bioactive agents. Wing-Fu Lai, Wing-Tak Wong. 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1818087620314604
Workload Characterization of Programmable Metasurfaces. Taqua Saeed et al. 2019. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3345312.3345470
CoVid vaccines based on graphene, nanonetwork-Internet of Nanothings (IoNT). Smith K. 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358150548_CoVid_vaccines_based_on_graphene_nanonetwork_and_Internet_of_Nanothings_IoNT
Graphene-based artificial synapse of the human brain. Nanowerk news, Jul 23, 2018. https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-news2/newsid=50738.php
Low-Power, Tunable Graphene Synapses for Neuromorphic Computing. Taghi Sharbati, M. et al. 2018. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201802353
Switchable Graphene-Based Bioelectronics Interfaces. Choudhary, M. Et al. 2020. https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9040/8/2/45